Ruminal activators, general features and their advantages for feeding ruminants

Juana Galindo, A. Elías, Yoandra Marrero, Niurca González, Areadne Sosa

Abstract


This paper compiles information related to ruminant activators, their action mechanism and their function in fermentative processes produced in the rumen of the animals. It is composed by four sections: 1) particularities of the digestive system of ruminants, 2) ruminal microbial ecosystem, 3) manipulation of rumen fermentative processes and 4) ruminal activators. Rumenis presented as the largest of the pre-stomach compartments ofruminants, with one of the most complex ecosystems in nature. It integrates bacteria, fungi, protozoa, bacteriophages and, occasionally, yeasts and final products of fermentation (organic acids, ammonia and gases, among others). Fermentative processes that occur in this organ can be manipulated with the application of different strategies, aimed at modifying sensitive sites for microbial development, enzyme production, final products of microbial action, specifically the fermentation pattern, nutrient passage, and some others. One of the procedures for manipulating ruminal fermentation is the use of ruminant activators. These increase the digestive utilization of food consumed by the animals, which is transformed into higher voluntary intake and milk, meat and wool production.
Key words: rumen, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, VFA

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