Contribution to the study of soil fertility and its relation to pastures and forages production

Gustavo Crespo, I. Rodríguez, Sandra Lok


Five well differentiated periods are recognize, that show qualitative changes that have taken place in the researches conception developed in
Instituto of Ciencia Animal concerning soil fertility and its relation with pastures and forages production. In the first stage, corresponding to
1965-1970, the studies were centered in nutrients identification that limited pastures production and ways for their correction and appropriate
fertilization .The fact that N was identified as the main nutrient that limits soil fertility motivated the development of many researches from
1970-1980, related with the effect of N application on the production and pasture quantity used in the country, as well as the best way of
distributing this fertilizer to decrease the seasonal effect of pastures production. The influence of nitrogenous fertilization was also studied in
different indicators production and animal health and in the action of continuous applications in soils agro-chemicals properties. This type of
researches continued developing in 1980- 1990, stage in which was deepened in the high incidence factors to elevate the efficiency of N use,
mainly the influence of climatic factors. In this period the researches were also intensified about laboratory methods for the determination of
N assimilable contents from the soil and the influence of Cuban natural zeolite in the improvement of the efficiency of N use by grasses. By
the middle of 1981-1990 decade researchers related with the role of animals excrements in the soil fertility and pastures production began.
In 1983was clear the effect of quantity and distribution of animals excrete on soil fertility and grassland productivity, and in 1984 different ways of use of this resource and synergy of it with the fertilizer are described. With the new paradigm of the agro-ecological conception in the agricultural use, an original approach in soil fertility topic was opened. In this sense more than twelve researches during the years 1995 and 2000 were developed, that were use as database to form a program that allows knowing the result of nutrients balance in different systems of animal production. More recently, from the beginning of this century, researches have been centered in system studies, mainly related with the impact of animal production technologies in grassland and soil indicators. The researches have shown an evolutionary satisfactory development, which have gone in agreement with the imposed necessities by the new scientific tendencies. Furthers researches will allow to propose alternatives for the adoption of technologies that constantly increase the general soils fertility in cattle areas of the country.

Key words: tropical pastures, fertilization, recycling, systems.

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